It is the study of the behavior, manipulation, and control of fluids that are confined to structures of nanometer (typically 1–100 nm) characteristic dimensions (1 nm = 10−9 m). Fluids confined in these structures exhibit physical behaviors not observed in larger structures, such as those of micrometer dimensions and above, because the characteristic physical scaling lengths of the fluid, (e.g. Debye length, hydrodynamic radius) very closely coincide with the dimensions of the nanostructure itself.
Microarray DNA hybridization techniques have been used widely from basic to applied molecular biology research. Generally, in a DNA microarray, different probe DNA molecules are immobilized on a solid support in groups and form an array of microspots. Then, hybridization to the microarray can be performed by applying sample DNA solutions in either the bulk or the microfluidic manner.
Micro-scale/Nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) should be intended to perform expected capacities in brief spans, regularly in the millisecond to picosecond extend. Most mechanical properties are known to be scale subordinate, subsequently, the properties of Nanoscale structures should be estimated. Bionics is the use of organic strategies and systems found in nature to the examination and plan of designing systems and present-day innovation. Bionics implies the substitution or upgrade of organs or other body parts by mechanical renditions. Bionic inserts contrast from minor prostheses by copying the first capacity intently, or notwithstanding outperforming it. Biomechanical autonomy is the utilization of natural qualities in living life forms as the learning base for growing new robot outlines. The term can likewise allude to the utilization of natural examples as practical robot segments. Biomechanical technology converges the fields of computer science, bionics, science, physiology, and hereditary building.
Nano-medicine is the medical application of nanotechnology for the treatment and prevention of major ailments, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Medicinal workshop related microfluidic nanomedicines are many such materials fail to reach clinical trials due to critical challenges that involves poor reproducibility in large-volume production that have led to the failure in animal studies and clinical trials. Recent research using microfluidic technology has provided emerging platforms with high potential to accelerate the clinical translation of nanomedicine.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a sub-discipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids—liquids and gases. It has several sub-disciplines, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of liquids in motion). Fluid dynamics has a wide range of applications, including calculating forces and moments on aircraft, determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines, predicting weather patterns, understanding nebulae in interstellar space and modeling fission weapon detonation. Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure—which underlies these practical disciplines—that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems
Droplet based microfluidics is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field of research combining soft matter physics, biochemistry and microsystems engineering. Its applications range from fast analytical systems or the synthesis of advanced materials to protein crystallization and biological assays for living cells. Precise control of droplet volumes and reliable manipulation of individual droplets such as coalescence, mixing of their contents, and sorting in combination with fast analysis tools allow us to perform chemical reactions inside the droplets under defined conditions. In this paper, we will review available drop generation and manipulation techniques. The main focus of this review is not to be comprehensive and explain all techniques in great detail but to identify and shed light on similarities and underlying physical principles. Since geometry and wetting properties of the microfluidic channels are crucial factors for droplet generation, we also briefly describe typical device fabrication methods in droplet based microfluidics. Examples of applications and reaction schemes which rely on the discussed manipulation techniques are also presented, such as the fabrication of special materials and biophysical experiments.
Biofluid dynamics may be considered as the discipline of biological engineering or biomedical engineering in which the fundamental principles of fluid dynamics are used to explain the mechanisms of biological flows and their interrelationships with physiological processes, in health and in diseases/disorder. It can be considered as the conjuncture of mechanical engineering and biological engineering. It spans from cells to organs, covering diverse aspects of the functionality of systemic physiology, including cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, musculoskeletal and neurological systems etc.
Biosensor/biosensing research involves many disciplines and therefore relevant activity tends to be distributed across various academic departments and across research groups both within and between universities. Because of this the guide is structured by academic group rather than by research activity or application area. There are various research area related to Biosensors.
- Chemistry Engineering
- Medical Engineering
Thermofluid sciences involve the study of the heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics and mass transfer in complex engineering systems. Many of the applications of thermofluid sciences focus on the development of alternative and sustainable energy technologies. The department hosts a wide variety of research projects in this area. These projects range of the study of high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, to micro- and nano-scale heat transfer in energy materials, to understanding the fundamental physics occurring at the interfaces of bubbles and multiphase systems.
Microfluidic cell culture integrates knowledge from biology, biochemistry, engineering, and physics to develop devices and techniques for culturing, maintaining, analyzing, and experimenting with cells at the microscale. It merges microfluidics, a set of technologies used for the manipulation of small fluid volumes (μL, nL, pL) within artificially fabricated microsystems, and cell culture, which involves the maintenance and growth of cells in a controlled laboratory environment. Microfluidics has been used for cell biology studies as the dimensions of the microfluidic channels are well suited for the physical scale of cells.
Active flow control (AFC) has reâ€emerged as a formidable research area in aerodynamics. The control of large coherent structures via periodic perturbations and the mechanical means to achieve this have been at the heart of these developments. Most of the AFC research has focused on airfoil configurations including so-called simplified high-lift systems, although drag reduction, three-dimensional configurations and flows, are also actively researched.